FP7 IRMOS also examined aspects of translation of ALS terms at the application level into resource-based attributes to bridge the gap between customer expectations and cloud provider resource management mechanisms.   The European Commission has presented a summary of the results of various ALS research projects (from specifications to monitoring, management and implementation).  During research for this article and my presentations that include a discussion on this topic, I contacted industry stakeholders, particularly our lawyers and employees of Claims Management. The reality is that both contracts and service level agreements are acceptable and applicable. There was a question of preference and it was divided directly in the middle. My advisors, who were in the contract, preferred them for their structure and simply felt more comfortable with the defence. While the other half felt that contracts were not necessary, half sided with service level agreements. On the claims management side, it was not as divided. The majority of claims experts felt that contracts, with the exception of programs, were not a necessity at all, as has already been mentioned. Indeed, several companies have refused, as part of their programs, to enter into some form of contract with service providers. It is therefore a DRAW in the field of acceptability and applicability. In addition to defining performance metrics, an ALS may include a downtime and documentation management plan, as the service provider compensates clients for violations. Service credits are a typical remedy.
For example, service providers may provide credits commensurated with the period during which they exceeded the ALS performance guarantee. A service provider may limit performance penalties to a maximum dollar amount to limit the risk. Service level agreements are also defined at different levels: most service providers create a standard type of ALS or several standard SLAs that explain how their different services will be made available to end-users. These SLAs are of maximum value when negotiating prices for their services with customers. All ALS should be reviewed periodically and, if necessary, amended. The main point is to create a new level for the grid, cloud or SOA middleware, capable of creating a trading mechanism between service providers and consumers. For example, the EU-funded Framework SLA@SOI 7 research projectexplores aspects of multi-level, multi-supplier slas within service-based infrastructure and cloud computing, while another EU-funded project, VISION Cloud, has delivered results in terms of content-based ALS.