However, the parties could not agree on how to implement Article 6 of the Coal Market Agreement in the 24 or 25, and they deferred those decisions to COP 26. At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  Paragraphs 6.4 to 6.7 define a mechanism „that contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gases and supports sustainable development.“  Although there is not yet a concrete name for the mechanism, many parties and observers have informally partnered around the name of the „sustainable development mechanism“ or „SDM“.   The MDS is seen as the successor to the Clean Development Mechanism, a flexible mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol that would allow the parties to jointly monitor emissions reductions for their planned national contributions. The Sustainable Development Mechanism sets the framework for the future of the post-Kyoto sustainable development mechanism (2020). [must update] If the world had begun to gradually reduce CO2 emissions a few decades ago, a path of soft sliding towards carbon neutrality would have been plausible. But even when scientists sounded an increasingly urgent alarm, there were almost only delays; Today, the need for action is radical. After ratification, the agreement requires governments to submit their emission reduction plans. Ultimately, they must play their part in keeping global temperatures well below 2 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period and making „efforts“ to keep them at 1.5 degrees Celsius.
Turkey and three major oil-exporting nations are among the seven countries that have yet to ratify the 2015 Paris climate agreement. Angola joined Kyrgyzstan and Lebanon and ratified in 2020, meaning the 190-nation agreement was formally approved by 197 nations. Under U.S. law, U.S. participation in an international agreement may be denounced by a president acting on the executive branch or by an act of Congress, regardless of how the United States acceded to the agreement. The Paris agreement stipulates that a party cannot withdraw from the agreement within the first three years of its entry into force. When progress is assessed in the 2020s, emerging countries will see that more prosperous nations are not meeting their already inadequate commitments and are doing nothing close to the funds they have pledged. „Without this promised funding,“ Sachs writes, „developing countries can refuse to make promises to reduce emissions in line with the temperature target set by the Paris Agreement.“ The changes needed to achieve these goals are enormous and rapid, much larger and faster than what national governments would make on the sole basis of own interests, especially given the inertia of the status quo. A certain strength or mechanism is needed to speed things up, to push all countries further, faster. Since the Paris Agreement is expected to apply after 2020, the first formal inventory of the agreement will not be carried out until 2023. However, as part of a decision attached to the agreement, the parties decided to restart the five-year cycle with a „facilitation dialogue“ on collective progress in 2018 and the presentation of the NDC by 2030 to 2020. In September 2019, UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres convened a climate summit in New York to bring countries together towards higher ambitions in 2020.
The world`s major emitters have not presented substantial emission reduction plans, but 65 countries have announced plans to improve their NPNPs by the end of 2020.