EMAC is a kind of MAA that facilitates the sharing of aid between states in the event of an emergency, including natural or man-made disasters. EMAC was ratified by the U.S. Congress in 1996.3 It is the most common MAA in the United States; EMAC has been adopted by all states, the District of Columbia, and some territories.4 EMAC does not replace federal aid, but acts to supplement federal funds or provide resources if an event does not warrant federal support. EMAC is triggered by a requesting state by an official emergency declaration from the governors and a request for assistance, sent by the National Emergency Management Association (NEMA), the organization that manages EMAC.4, to meet the request and provide the requested resources. Under the EMAC, the requesting state is responsible for the state`s compensation for the costs incurred.5 EMAC also deals with licensing, liability and compensation issues for staff assigned as a result of an EMAC application. Persons who grant aid under the Covenant are considered to be agents of the state requesting for the purpose of non-activity and immunity; No State of support, nor its officers, employees or others, hired by the State through the EMAC, is held responsible for an act or omission in good faith.6 Any intentional misconduct, gross negligence or recklessness are excluded from EMAC immunity. Since EMAC applies only to public servants or employees and other persons employed by the state through EMAC, the protection and reciprocity of licences does not automatically apply to volunteers who provide services outside the EMAC. Volunteers must be turned into temporary agents to provide coverage under the EMAC. Similarly, local governments and their collaborators are not EMAC parties, unless they are explicitly considered state forces through an MAA with the state. The Model State-County Mutual Aid Deployment Contract is a model intergovernmental contract, Some States have developed national mutual assistance systems that allow municipalities to request and provide state assistance7.7 Assistance agreements accelerate emergency measures by setting advance protocols for requesting and providing assistance and establishing reimbursement and compensation guidelines and procedures, eliminating or reducing the extent to which these issues need to be negotiated. Formal pre-event assistance agreements may also expedite FEMA`s reimbursement of services, equipment and supplies provided as part of mutual assistance.
FEMA reimburses the costs of mutual assistance when assistance has been requested (i.e. no spontaneous assistance), assistance requested directly in the context of a disaster eligible for FEMA assistance and which was carried out under a written assistance agreement signed.2 The assistance agreement must apply in all situations, and not just for events that trigger an emergency/disaster declaration of the Stafford Act or are the subject of a request for federal assistance. Only the organization seeking mutual assistance can apply directly for financial assistance from FEMA; Aid agencies must demand a refund from the requesting organization. FEMA reimburses the assistance agreements orally, but they must be recorded in writing after the event and signed by an official of each institution as a condition for the reimbursement of the FemA. In addition to EMAC, other mutual assistance pacts and agreements have been concluded in some regions. These include the Pacific Northwest Emergency Management Agreement and the California, Nevada, and Oregon Chempack Sharing Procedures. 7 Other cooperation agreements covering public health activities in general, but also on prevention and response to emergencies, include the Great Lakes Border Health Initiative Public Health Data Sharing Agreement and the Guidelines for U.S.-Mexico Coordination on Epidemiologic Events of Mutual Interest. 7 The „Intrastate Mutual Aid Legislation“ model was developed by NEMA to provide intergovernmental assistance between systems